1. Could each of the following be used as referring expressions?
-Today yes / no
-God yes / no
-about yes / no
-I yes / no
-Sarah yes / no
-a book yes / no
-6 o'clock yes / no
-the dragon yes / no
-send yes / no
-66 kilometers yes / no
2. Circle the words which can be predicates ?
He – school – about – not – fat – Mohammed – travel
3. Circle the words which can be referring expressions?
asleep – girl – Suzan – the – whimsical – Dammam – but – send
4.The naughty boy is behind the tree.
a. Analyze this sentence semantically into a predicator and arguments?
-Arguments: The naughty boy, the tree.
b. Of what degree is the predicate which functions as a predictor
in this sentence? Two-predicate.
5. A referring expression is any expression used in an utterance to refer to something or someone (or a clearly delimited collection of things or people), i.e used with a particular referent in mind.
Eg: the name Fred in an utterance such as “Fred hit me”, where the speaker has a particular person in mind when he says “Fred”, is a referring expression.
Fred in “There’s no Fred at this address” is not a referring expression, because in this case a speaker would not have a particular person in mind in uttering the world.
The same expression can be a referring expression or not depending on the contrext. This is true of indefinite noun phrases.