1. What makes the difference between sense and reference?
+ Sense: relationships inside the language (nghĩa không thay đổi)
+ Reference: relationships between language and the world. (nghĩa thay đổi)
2. Sense / Proposition
Sense of an expression is its place in a system of semantic relationships with other expressions in the language.
Eg: almost, if...
Proposition: is that part of the meaning of a clause or sentence that is constant, despite changes in such things as the voice or illocutionary force of the clause.
A proposition corresponds to a complete independent thought.
The sense of a single word or phrase only indicates concepts, not complete thought.
3. Relationship between Reference and Utterance:
• Both referring and uttering acts are performed by particular speakers on particular occasions
• 2 separate utterances: 2 separate acts of referring
• Acts of referring only actually happen in the course of utterances.
Eg: “By Fred, I mean the fat man in the corner”
the fat man in the corner may refer to a different man in a different situation of utterance.
4. Generic sentences: a sentence in which some statement is made about a whole unrestricted class of individuals as opposed to any particular indvidual.
Eg: The whale is a mamal.
Gentlemen prefer blondes.
Equative sentences: is one which is used to assert the identity of the referents of two referring expressions; i.e. to assert that two referring expressions have the same referent.
Eg: John is a person in the corner.
Mrs Thatcher is the Prime Minister.
5. The gap between sentence meaning and speaker meaning.
Is such that it is even possible for a speaker to convey a quite intelligible intention by using a sentence where literal meaning is contradictory or non-sensical.
Eg: Tired traveler: “This suitcase is killing me”
Sentence meaning affected by the speaker goal and will speaker meaning.